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Distribution of Cooling Structures in Water Cooled Electrical Machines using Localized Loss Profiles

  • Cooling is a critical factor for improving power density in electrical appliances, especially in integrated drives for mobile applications. However, the issue of distributed losses in electric machines can lead to hotspots and temperature gradients within the electric drive. Traditional cooling jackets use unidirectional flow without or with evenly distributed cooling structures. This often aggravates the issue of hotspots, resulting in thermal derating and thus limiting the operation range. As well, a non-demand oriented distribution of cooling structures leads to unnecessary pressure losses. This problem is addressed with a newly elaborated method for distributing cooling elements, i.e., pin fins with varying density distribution inside the cooling channel. Results from previous work, numerical simulations, and measurement data from a planar test bench are used. The approach segments the cooling channel by using a loss profile. This profile and analytic heat transfer calculations are used to determine the required density of cooling elements for dissipating the locally induced losses. For a linear channel with uniformly distributed losses, this results in an increasing number of cooling elements within the channel in fluid flow direction. With localized losses, this will result in an increased density distribution in the respective areas. The method is evaluated by applying it to a planar test channel and investigating the temperature distribution on a test bench. First results indicate that the newly developed cooling element distribution provides an advantageous temperature distribution. The temperature gradient along the cooling channel shows a reduction from 23 K to 9 K with the distributed cooling elements. The method, previously tested in the linear planar channel, then is applied to the construction of a cooling jacket with a specifically designed two-layer cooling channel. This design is analyzed using CFD, a prototype is currently under production. Tests on the prototype will follow in further investigations.

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Author:Christoph Ellenrieder, Benedikt Reick, Marcus Geimer
Parent Title (German):SAE Technical Paper
Publisher:SAE International
Place of publication:Warrendale, Pennsylvania, United States
Document Type:Conference Proceeding
Date of Publication (online):2024/04/03
Date of first Publication:2023/08/28
Creating Corporation:SAE International and SAE Naples Section
Release Date:2024/04/09
Tag:Electric drives; Heat transfer; cooling
Page Number:11
First Page:1
Last Page:11
Institutes:Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International